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Introduction Chap.1 Chap.2 Chap.3 Chap.4 Conclusion

Up to this point, we have discussed Cassavetes’ two major films, the characteristics of his films and his life-long main theme.

To summarize, Shadows and Love Streams have similar points; they depict the meandering nature of human relationships and misunderstandings between siblings. In Shadows, family ties and the fact that they are Negroes unite the siblings, Hugh, Ben and Leria.

In Shadows, the existence of the siblings can be said to be the only and complete existence that is certain in the film. The tie between the brothers can be defined as a strong one. The brothers are adults but none of them has a steady or another family. The place where they belong is only one. While, in the first half of Love Streams, the tie between the siblings nearly disappears. The siblings, Sarah and Robert are middle-aged and become estranged from each other. After Sarah loses her family through her divorce, she visits Robert. They each have their own places to which they belonged. Robert and Sarah try to repair their tie, but it becomes disconnected after all. They would have to make an attempt to find a new family. The tie of a blood relationship has no power in the end.
In addition, scenes with pools are often found in Cassavetes’ films. We can see it in Too Late Blues, Minnie and Moscowitz and Love Streams. For example, in Too Late Blues, drunken Ghost and Jessica flirt near the poolside. They nearly fall off to the pool.52 In Minnie and Moscowitz, Seymour and Minnie swim in the pool at midnight where no one is swimming. In these examples, pools function as a place where the lovers open their heart. Pools may liberate lovers. In Love Streams, the pool appears in Sarah’s second dream. She jumps into the pool with her clothes on. The pool symbolizes the boundary between the real and the unreal in this film. In Chapter Three, we have discussed Sarah’s act of jumping into the pool as the spiritual suicide. The pool as Cassavetes’ favorite props seems to have different meanings in the long run.

In Chapter Four, it was noted that Cassavetes made films about family-organizing rather than family-scattering. But in Love Streams, finally, the nuclear family and siblings are parted. The characters will start as individuals. Although the ending seems rather hopeless, we still find the characters’ vital force, which is pervasive in all Cassavetes’ characters. What makes Cassavetes characters different from ordinary melodramatic characters is their kind of adaptability to real life. The characters negotiate obstacles using their own adaptability, which might be an absent-minded state.

As Cassavetes’ words clearly indicates, he was only interested in love, the family, in short, human relationships. Moreover, he said:
I’m a man who believes in the validity of a person’s inner desires. And I think those inner desires, whether they’re ugly or beautiful, are pertinent to each of us and are probably the only things worth a damn. I want to put those inner desires on the screen so we can all look and think and feel and marvel at them.53

He creates many astonishing scenes, which consist of laughter and dance, expressing the characters’ meandering with their open mouths and attaching two bodies. In his early films, Cassavetes used close-ups of the characters’ grimace, open mouth and fragment of the body to represent each character’s inner truth. Later, he might try to depict inner truth using symbolic sequnces such as those in Love Streams. Cassavetes’ films deal with problems more deeply than those in ordinary melodrama-based films. Each character’s excessive emotion sometimes combines to get closer to family melodrama. But Cassavetes’ aim to depict characters’ complete inner truth enabled his films to mix melodramatic factors with the real world. Adopting melodramatic props and issues, he manipulated comical effects and moving scenes, and succeeded in describing the various aspects of human nature.

Introduction Chap.1 Chap.2 Chap.3 Chap.4 Conclusion
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52 Raymond Carney, Cassavetes no Utsusita America. [American Dreaming: The Films of John Cassavetes and the American Experience]. 67. Raymond Carney suggests that this scene compares with the love scene in Capra’s It’s a wonderful Life on the point that depicting ado between the lovers rather than making serious love scene.
Joseph Gelmis, The Film Director as Superstar. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1974. 129.


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キネマ旬報社 『カサヴェテス・コレクション』、1993
(株)スイッチ・コーポレーション 『スイッチ』 1990年1月号、、1990
フィルムアート社 『カイエ・ド・シネマ・ジャパン』 7号、1993
フィルムアート社 『カサヴェテス・ストリームス』、1993
カーニー、レイモンド著、梅本洋一訳 『カサヴェテスの映したアメリカ』、勁草書房、1997


梅本洋一 『映画をつなぎとめるために』、勁草書房、1990
加藤幹郎 『映画のメロドラマ的想像力』、フィルムアート社,1988
―――― 『映画ジャンル論』、平凡社、1996
佐藤忠男 『アメリカ映画』、第三文明社、1986
シュレイダー、ポール著、山本喜久男訳 『聖なる映画』、フィルムアート社、1981
シトニー、アダムズ編、石崎浩一郎訳 『アメリカの実験映画』、1972
スクラー、ロバート著、鈴木主税訳 『映画がつくったアメリカ』、平凡社、1980
濱口幸一他 『現代映画作家を知る17の方法』、フィルムアート社、1997
メカス、ジョナス著、飯村昭子訳 『メカスの映画日記』、フィルムアート社、1974


―――― 小海永二訳、『映画とはなにかI』、美術出版社、1967
―――― 小海永二訳、『映画とはなにかIII』、美術出版社、1963
―――― 小海永二訳、『映画とはなにかIV』、美術出版社、1977


河竹登志夫 『演劇概論』、東京大学出版会、1978
高島邦子 『20世紀アメリカ演劇』、国書刊行会、1993


木島俊介 『アメリカ現代芸術の25人』、集英社、1995
粉川哲夫 『ニューヨーク街路劇場』、北斗出版、1981
近藤竜男 『ニューヨーク現代美術』、新潮社、1988
野村達朗 『ユダヤ移民のニューヨーク』、山川出版社、1995
藤枝晃雄編 『アメリカの芸術』、弘文堂、1992、
松山信直編 『アメリカ文学とニューヨーク』、南雲堂、1985
渡辺淳 『スペクタルの60年代』、平凡社、1987


田之倉稔 『イタリアのアバンギャルド』、白水社、1981
久守和子他 『英米文学にみる家族の肖像』、ミネルヴァ書房、1997
細川周平他 『ジャズを放つ』、洋泉社、1997
前田一郎 『アメリカ黒人問題』、熊本商科大学海外事情研究所、1979
山口昌男他 『反構造としての笑い』、NTT出版株式会社、1993


John Cassavetes’ films

Shadows (filmed 1957-9; released 1959)
Screenplay: John Cassavetes
Photography: John Cassavetes, Erich Kollmar
Editors: John Cassavetes, Maurice McEndree
Producers: Maurice McEndree and Nikos Papatakis
Cast: Ben Carruthers(Ben), Leria Goldoni(Leria), Hugh Hurd(Hugh), Anthony Ray(Tony), David Pokitillow(David), Rupert Crosse(Rupert), Davey Jones(Davey)
Running time: 87 minutes

Too Late Blues (filmed 1961; released 1962)
Screenplay: John Cassavetes and Richard Car
Photography: Lionel Lindon
Editor: Frank Bracht
Producer: John Cassavetes
Cast: Bobby Darin(John “Ghost” Wakefield), Stella Stevens(Jess Polanski), Everett Chambers(Benny Flowers), Nick Dennis(Nick), Rupert Crosse(Baby Jackson), Val Avery(Freidlobe)
Running time: 103 minutes

A Child is Waiting (filmed 1962; released 1963)
Screenplay: Abby Mann
Photography: Joseph LaShelle
Editor: Gene Fowler, Jr.
Producer: Stanley Klamer
Cast: Burt Lancaster(Dr. Matthew Clark), Judy Garland(Jean Hansen), Gena Rowlands(Sophie Widdicombe), Steven Hill(Ted Widdicombe), Bruce Ritchey(Reuben Widdicombe), Gloria McGehee(Mattie)
Running time: 102 minutes

Faces (filmed 1965; released 1968)
Screenplay: John Cassavetes
Photography: John Cassavetes, Al Ruban, George Sims
Editors: John Cassavetes, Al Ruban, Maurice McEndree
Producers: John Cassavetes, Maurice McEndree
Cast: John Marley(Richard Forst), Gena Rowlands(Jeannie Rapp), Lynn Carlin(Maria Forst), Seymour Cassel(Chet), Fred Draper(Freddie), Val Avery(Jim McCarthy), Dorothy Gulliver(Florence)
Running time: 129 minutes

Minnie and Moskowitz (filmed 1971; released 1971)
Screenplay: John Cassavetes
Photography: John Cassavetes, Alric Edens, Arthur J. Ornitz, Michael Margulies
Editors: John Cassavetes, Robert Heffernan
Producer: Al Ruban
Cast: Gena Rowlands(Minnie Moore),Seymour Cassel(Seymour Moskowitz), Val Avery(Zelmo Swift),John Cassavetes(Jim), Elsie Ames(Florence), Tim Carey(Morgan Morgan)
Running time: 115 minutes

A Woman Under the Influence (filmed 1972; released 1974)
Screenplay: John Cassavetes
Photography: John Cassavetes, Caleb Deschanel, Tim Ferris
Editors: John Cassavetes, Tom Cornwell
Producer: Sam Shaw
Cast: Gena Rowlands(Mabel Longhetti), Peter Falk(Nick Longhetti), Katherine Cassavetes(Mama Longhetti), Lady Rowlands(Mabel’s mother), O.G. Gunn(Garson Cross), Eddie Shaw(Doctor Zepp), Mario Gallo(Harold Jensen)
Running time: 147 minutes

The Killing of a Chinese Bookie (filmed 1976; released 1976 and again in 1978, in a completely reedited print)
Screenplay: John Cassavetes
Photography: John Cassavetes, Frederick Elmes
Editor: John Cassavetes
Producer: Al Ruban
Cast: Ben Gazzara(Cosmo Vitelli), Azizi Johari(Rachel), Meade Roberts(Mr. Sophistication), David Rowlands(Lamarr, the chauffeur), Marty Reitz(Al Ruban), Tim Carey(the white-gloved gangster), Virginia Carrington(Betty), Alice Freeland(Sherry), Donna Gordon(Margo)
Running time: 135 minutes (1976); 108 minutes (1978)

Opening Night (filmed 1977; released 1978 and withdrawn; re-released 1991)
Screenplay: John Cassavetes
Photography: John Cassavetes, Al Ruban
Editors: John Cassavetes, Tom Cornwell
Producer: Al Ruban
Cast: Gena Rowlands(Myrtle Gordon), John Cassavetes(Maurice), Ben Gazzara(Manny Victor), John Blondell(Sarah Goode), Zohra Lampert(Dorothy Victor), Paul Stewart(David Samuels), Laura Johnson(Nancy Stein)
Running time: 144 minutes

Gloria (filmed 1980; released 1984)
Screenplay: John Cassavetes
Photography: Fred Schuler, John Cassavetes
Editors: John Cassavetes, George Villasenor
Producers: John Cassavetes, Sam Shaw
Cast: Gena Rowlands(Gloria), John Adams(Phil Dawn), Julie Carmen(Jeri Dawn), Buck Henry(Jack Dawn), Janet Rubin(Female cabbie), Basilio Franchina(Tony Tanzini), Asa Adil Qawee(East 104th Street cabbie)
Running time: 110 minutes

Love Strems (filmed 1983; released 1984)
Screenplay: John Cassavetes, Ted Allen
Photography: John Cassavetes, Al Ruban
Editors: John Cassavetes, George Villasenor
Producers: Manahem Golan and Yoram Globus
Cast: Gena Rowlands(Sarah Lawson), John Cassavetes(Robert Harmon), Diahnne Abbot(Susan), Seymour Cassel(Jack Lawson), Margaret Abbot(Margarita), Jakob Shaw(Albie Swanson), Joan Foley(Judge Dunbar), Risa Martha Blewitt(Debbie Lawson), Doe Avedon(Mrs. Kiner)
Running time: 141 minutes


It’s Wonderful Life(1946)
Director: Frank Capra
Screenplay: Frances Goodrich, Albert Hackett, Frank Capra
Photography: Joseph Walker
Editors: William Hornbeck
Cast: James Stewart(George Baily), Donna Reed(Mary Hatch), Lionel Barrymore(Dr. Potter), Henry Travers(Clarence), Beulah Bondi(Mrs. Bailey), Gloria Grahame(Violet), Thomas Mitchell(Uncle Billy)
Running time: 129 minutes

Rebel Without a Cause (1955)
Director: Nicholas Ray
Screenplay: Nicholas Ray
Cast: James Dean(Jim), Natalie Wood(Judy), Sal Mineo(Plato), Jim Backus(Jim’s father), Ann Doran(Jim’s mother),Corey Allen(Buzz), Edward Platt(Ray), Dennis Hopper(Goon), Nick Adams(Moose), William Hopper(Judy’s father)
Running time: 111 minutes

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